A young community scholar named Gregor Mendel who breaded pea plants to study the inheritance of their characteristics. Mendel was the first to carry out the first important studies of heredity. He is the first person to succeed in predicting how traits would be transferred from one generation to another. Mendel studied many plants before using the garden pea in his experiments.
Mendel crossed a tall and short pea plant to make new plants. The crossing of the offspring was referred to as hybrids. A hybrid is the offspring of parents that have different forms of trait, which can be tall and short height. The first experiments that Mendel made were called monohybrid crosses. Mono means “one” and the two parent plants are both unlike by a single trait which is the height.
In the first generation, Mendel chose a six foot tall pea plant that came from a population of six feet tall pea plants. Mendel cross-pollinated a tall pea plant with a short pea plant that was less than two feet tall. It also came from a population of short pea plants. Mendel planted the seeds and found that all off-spring had the trait of the taller parent plant. It was like the short parent plant was never cross-pollinated with the tall parent plant.
In the second generation, Mendel permitted the tall plants in the first generation to self pollinate. When the seeds formed, he planted them and counted over 1000 plants in the second generation. He saw the one fourth of the offspring were as short and the short plants in the parent generation, which means in the second generation, the tall and short plants made a ratio of about three tall plants to one short plant.
The true breeding tall and short plants are known as the P1 generation. The P stands for “parent”. The offspring of the parent plants are known as the F1 generation. The F stands for “Filial” in other words, “son of daughter”. If you cross two F1 plants with each other, the offspring will be called the “F2 generation”. Mendel did the same monohybrid crosses with a total of seven pairs of traits, studying one pair of traits at a time.
Mendel said the tall plants are not all the same. When tall plants are crossed with each other, the outcome becomes a tall offspring. It was Mendel’s original P1 true-breeding tall plants. The other tall plants were crossed with each other and the off springs became short and tall.
Two organisms may look alike but will have a different gene combination. Phenotype is called the way an organism looks or behaves. A genotype of a tall plant that contains one allele for tallness and one allele for shortness is Tt.
Mendel created another set of crosses in which he used peas that were different from each other in two traits. A cross with two different traits becomes a dihybrid cross because di means “two”. In the first generation, Mendel took true-breeding pea plants that had round yellow seeds (RRYY) and crossed them with the true breeding pea plants that had wrinkled green seeds (rryy). Mendel already knew that when he crossed plants that produced round seeds with plants that produced wrinkled seeds, all plants in the F1 generations produced seeds that were round.
In the second generation, Mendel allowed the F1 plants to pollinate themselves. .............
I'll send to Toxin after, this shit is due tomorrow, being on MPGH is bad enough