Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast
Results 1 to 15 of 23
  1. #1
    robinvanpersie's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2012
    Gender
    male
    Posts
    443
    Reputation
    57
    Thanks
    29

    How Islamic Inventors Changed the World

    From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we take for granted in daily life. As a new exhibition opens, Paul Vallely nominates 20 of the most influential- and identifies the men of genius behind them.

    1 The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee.

    2 The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one.

    3 A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe - where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century - and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.

    4 A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn't. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles' feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing - concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing. Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

    5 Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders' most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

    6 Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam's foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today - liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.

    7 The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.

    8 Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders' metal armour and was an effective form of insulation - so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.

    9 The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe's Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe's castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world's - with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V's castle architect was a Muslim.

    10 Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.

    11 The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

    12 The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

    13 The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

    14 The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi's book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi's discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.

    15 Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal - soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas - see No 4).

    16 Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam's non-representational art. In contrast, Europe's floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were "covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned". Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly.

    17 The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.

    18 By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, "is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth". It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth's circumference to be 40,253.4km - less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139.

    19 Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting egg", and a torpedo - a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

    20 Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.

    "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World" is a new exhibition which began a nationwide tour this week. It is currently at the Science Museum in Manchester. For more information, go to www.1001inventions.com.
    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/sc...ld-469452.html
    Science is learning about the creation, Islam is learning about the creator.

    Alif, Lam, Meem. - 2:1 Quran
    This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah(God) - 2:2 Quran
    Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them, - 2:3 Quran
    And who believe in what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you, and of the Hereafter they are certain [in faith]. - 2:4 Quran
    Those are upon [right] guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful. - 2:5 Quran
    Indeed, those who disbelieve - it is all the same for them whether you warn them or do not warn them - they will not believe. - 2:6 Quran

  2. #2
    Empire's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Gender
    male
    Location
    .Alwayz.
    Posts
    19,901
    Reputation
    659
    Thanks
    1,345
    My Mood
    Pensive
    Yes, right. I've gone over this a lot with the Muslim community so I'll repeat what I said in hopes that you listen this time:

    If Islam did not play a role in the inventions, then the person is not an "Islamic inventor", but merely a normal inventor.

    I say this because at the same time I could argue a lot of technology was created by "Zeus followers" or "Hindu practicers".



    The religion of a person should not get the credit for a personal invention.


  3. The Following User Says Thank You to Empire For This Useful Post:

    [MPGH]Shadow (08-17-2015)

  4. #3
    Jew's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2013
    Gender
    male
    Location
    <dd style="overflow: hidden;">here</dd>
    Posts
    3,866
    Reputation
    289
    Thanks
    2,140
    My Mood
    Amazed
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_o...obel_laureates

    Muslims make up over 23% of the world's population

    Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals, of whom 11 have been Muslim. (thats 1.294% of all prizes)





    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_o...obel_laureates

    Jews comprise less than 0.2% of the world's population

    Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals, of whom at least 22% (without peace prize over 24%) were Jews


    sorry to burst your bubble mate,compared to muslims - jews are much more valuable to society. cold hard truth
    Last edited by Jew; 08-17-2015 at 05:20 PM.

  5. The Following User Says Thank You to Jew For This Useful Post:

    [MPGH]Shadow (08-17-2015)

  6. #4
    Trackloder's Avatar
    Join Date
    Dec 2011
    Gender
    male
    Location
    Paris
    Posts
    470
    Reputation
    10
    Thanks
    65
    My Mood
    Angelic
    Nothing m8

  7. #5
    Lightning's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Gender
    male
    Location
    MPGH
    Posts
    4,624
    Reputation
    1644
    Thanks
    11,590
    My Mood
    Angelic
    Quote Originally Posted by Jew View Post
    compared to muslims - jews are much more valuable to society. cold hard truth
    I hope you know what you are talking about, try searching how the word "algorithm" came up.

    MPGH member since 11 February 2012
    Ex - Contributor
    Ex - CF minion



  8. #6
    Jew's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2013
    Gender
    male
    Location
    <dd style="overflow: hidden;">here</dd>
    Posts
    3,866
    Reputation
    289
    Thanks
    2,140
    My Mood
    Amazed
    Quote Originally Posted by Lightning View Post
    I hope you know what you are talking about, try searching how the word "algorithm" came up.
    couldnt find anything about it, link me

    also how does that disprove that jews advance humanity at a much faster rate

  9. #7
    Lightning's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Gender
    male
    Location
    MPGH
    Posts
    4,624
    Reputation
    1644
    Thanks
    11,590
    My Mood
    Angelic
    Quote Originally Posted by Jew View Post

    couldnt find anything about it, link me

    also how does that disprove that jews advance humanity at a much faster rate
    because a lot of muslim scientists did things that helped the humanity beyond anything that would win them a noble prize and it was also way before it was created, sorry i won't be able to link you because i am busy and the info will probably be in arabic.
    (edited the stupid grammar errors lol)
    Last edited by Lightning; 08-18-2015 at 04:29 PM.

    MPGH member since 11 February 2012
    Ex - Contributor
    Ex - CF minion



  10. #8
    Jew's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2013
    Gender
    male
    Location
    <dd style="overflow: hidden;">here</dd>
    Posts
    3,866
    Reputation
    289
    Thanks
    2,140
    My Mood
    Amazed
    Quote Originally Posted by Lightning View Post
    it was also way before it was created
    you just proved my point?

    muslims currently arent helping society.

    the only thing they are really good at is being part of massive conflicts and wars nowadays. its the educational system and how the religion is above rationallity. even the strictest jews will study physics and medicine

  11. #9
    Empire's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2009
    Gender
    male
    Location
    .Alwayz.
    Posts
    19,901
    Reputation
    659
    Thanks
    1,345
    My Mood
    Pensive
    Quote Originally Posted by Lightning View Post


    because a lot of muslim scientists
    Quote Originally Posted by Lightning View Post

    muslim scientists

    I'm sorry, did they somehow use the quran to perform scientific experiments? Math equations? no?

    Then why the fuck are you labeling them as muslim scientist.




    Do you just not understand that people who have achievements that are irrelevant to their belief should not be cited for their belief and on behalf of their belief?

    It's so utterly petty that Muslims try this.

    I mean yeah, rarely would Christians do this shit, but holy fuck do muslims do this a lot.



    And to make matters worse: Muslims have the least important inventions of almost any major world religion.

    Give me a break.


  12. #10
    Lightning's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Gender
    male
    Location
    MPGH
    Posts
    4,624
    Reputation
    1644
    Thanks
    11,590
    My Mood
    Angelic
    Quote Originally Posted by Empire View Post





    I'm sorry, did they somehow use the quran to perform scientific experiments? Math equations? no?

    Then why the fuck are you labeling them as muslim scientist.




    Do you just not understand that people who have achievements that are irrelevant to their belief should not be cited for their belief and on behalf of their belief?

    It's so utterly petty that Muslims try this.

    I mean yeah, rarely would Christians do this shit, but holy fuck do muslims do this a lot.



    And to make matters worse: Muslims have the least important inventions of almost any major world religion.

    Give me a break.
    I labeled them as "muslim scientists" as he was saying that jews contributed to the society more than muslims so that was another debate, I didn't disagree with why we shouldn't label them as muslims because it is their beliefs.

    MPGH member since 11 February 2012
    Ex - Contributor
    Ex - CF minion



  13. #11
    Jew's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2013
    Gender
    male
    Location
    <dd style="overflow: hidden;">here</dd>
    Posts
    3,866
    Reputation
    289
    Thanks
    2,140
    My Mood
    Amazed
    Quote Originally Posted by Lightning View Post
    I labeled them as "muslim scientists" as he was saying that jews contributed to the society more than muslims so that was another debate, I didn't disagree with why we shouldn't label them as muslims because it is their beliefs.
    they arent even allowed to study anything but the quran because it contains "all truth and all knowledge"

    and yes.


    the world population is 7.3b (7,300,000,000)

    23% of that is muslims (1,679,000,000) -> 11 of these got a nobel prize -> 1 per 152,636,363 muslims gets a nobel prize on average

    0.2% of that is jews (14,600,000) -> 204 of these got a nobel prize -> 1 per 71,568 jews gets a nobel prize on average

    jews === 71,568 ===== 1
    muslims 152,636,363 2132


    which means that the average jew is
    2132 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO GET A NOBEL PRIZE THAN A MUSLIM
    Last edited by Jew; 08-19-2015 at 07:13 AM.

  14. #12
    FlutterShy!'s Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2015
    Gender
    female
    Location
    Ponyville
    Posts
    247
    Reputation
    31
    Thanks
    234
    My Mood
    Aggressive
    Quote Originally Posted by Jew View Post
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_o...obel_laureates

    Muslims make up over 23% of the world's population

    Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals, of whom 11 have been Muslim. (thats 1.294% of all prizes)





    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_o...obel_laureates

    Jews comprise less than 0.2% of the world's population

    Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals, of whom at least 22% (without peace prize over 24%) were Jews


    sorry to burst your bubble mate,compared to muslims - jews are much more valuable to society. cold hard truth
    Are you Jewish?

    - - - Updated - - -

    Quote Originally Posted by Jew View Post

    they arent even allowed to study anything but the quran because it contains "all truth and all knowledge"

    and yes.


    the world population is 7.3b (7,300,000,000)

    23% of that is muslims (1,679,000,000) -> 11 of these got a nobel prize -> 1 per 152,636,363 muslims gets a nobel prize on average

    0.2% of that is jews (14,600,000) -> 204 of these got a nobel prize -> 1 per 71,568 jews gets a nobel prize on average

    jews === 71,568 ===== 1
    muslims 152,636,363 2132


    which means that the average jew is
    2132 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO GET A NOBEL PRIZE THAN A MUSLIM
    Thats only because there are less jews bro! If there were like 1.3b jews and then it would be a different story

  15. #13
    Lightning's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2012
    Gender
    male
    Location
    MPGH
    Posts
    4,624
    Reputation
    1644
    Thanks
    11,590
    My Mood
    Angelic
    Quote Originally Posted by Jew View Post

    they arent even allowed to study anything but the quran because it contains "all truth and all knowledge"

    and yes.


    the world population is 7.3b (7,300,000,000)

    23% of that is muslims (1,679,000,000) -> 11 of these got a nobel prize -> 1 per 152,636,363 muslims gets a nobel prize on average

    0.2% of that is jews (14,600,000) -> 204 of these got a nobel prize -> 1 per 71,568 jews gets a nobel prize on average

    jews === 71,568 ===== 1
    muslims 152,636,363 2132


    which means that the average jew is
    2132 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO GET A NOBEL PRIZE THAN A MUSLIM
    Your calculations don't make any point I am talking about knowledge beyond the stupid nobel prize, Obama got a nobel lol.
    Your logic talks about Nobel prize as something superior, it may have been but not anymore.

    MPGH member since 11 February 2012
    Ex - Contributor
    Ex - CF minion



  16. #14
    Jew's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2013
    Gender
    male
    Location
    <dd style="overflow: hidden;">here</dd>
    Posts
    3,866
    Reputation
    289
    Thanks
    2,140
    My Mood
    Amazed
    Quote Originally Posted by FlutterShy! View Post
    Are you Jewish?

    - - - Updated - - -



    Thats only because there are less jews bro! If there were like 1.3b jews and then it would be a different story
    that doesnt make any sense.

    24% of nobel prices are given to jews

    if there were 2 times more jews

    there were 2 times more nobel prices given out to them. its a completely linear connection



    Quote Originally Posted by FlutterShy! View Post
    Are you Jewish?
    atheist


    - - - Updated - - -

    Quote Originally Posted by Lightning View Post
    Your calculations don't make any point I am talking about knowledge beyond the stupid nobel prize, Obama got a noble lol.
    high knowledge of modern science is awarded with the prize.

    we can compare HDI if you want to



    israel beats all the countries with a high muslim population

  17. #15
    FlutterShy!'s Avatar
    Join Date
    Aug 2015
    Gender
    female
    Location
    Ponyville
    Posts
    247
    Reputation
    31
    Thanks
    234
    My Mood
    Aggressive
    Quote Originally Posted by Jew View Post


    that doesnt make any sense.

    24% of nobel prices are given to jews

    if there were 2 times more jews

    there were 2 times more nobel prices given out to them. its a completely linear connection




    atheist


    - - - Updated - - -


    high knowledge of modern science is awarded with the prize.

    we can compare HDI if you want to



    israel beats all the countries with a high muslim population
    Its not linear because not everyone can win a Nobel Prize. Thats like having 4 people in which 2 have nobel prizes so 50% win prizes and thats like saying ow If i have 16 people then 8 will win prizes? Dont make sense

Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. How can i change the screenshot button
    By GibsonRocks231 in forum Combat Arms Hacks & Cheats
    Replies: 8
    Last Post: 01-22-2009, 04:39 AM
  2. How do you change the size of the signature?
    By Xarian in forum Suggestions, Requests & Help
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 10-25-2008, 10:36 PM
  3. How Do I Change the Color of My Enemy CHAMS?
    By DarkSoda in forum Combat Arms Hacks & Cheats
    Replies: 5
    Last Post: 08-11-2008, 02:06 PM
  4. How do you think the world will end?
    By mpghhackersrock123 in forum General
    Replies: 56
    Last Post: 07-16-2008, 08:49 PM
  5. CHANGE THE WORLD!
    By Gourav2122 in forum Spammers Corner
    Replies: 7
    Last Post: 06-24-2008, 11:02 AM